A coffee a day keeps cancer at bay

A coffee a day keeps cancer at bay
Drinking real coffee, rather than instant, has been shown in multiple studies to reduce the risk of cancer; it seems caffeine may be a benefit but far more so are the two polyphenol diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol; real coffee has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits, however it can increase blood cholesterol levels.

Liver cancer
Drinking coffee reduces the risk of Liver cancer in a ‘dose-dependent manner – the more you drink, the more it reduces risk.
Researchers from the University of Southampton and the University of Edinburgh have found that this applies to both caffeinated coffee and (to a lesser extent) decaffeinated coffee. And the research was no small study – it was a meta-analysis of 26 previous studies involving more than 2 million people in total (1). 5 cups a day halved risk, 3 cups reduced in by 35 per cent and just one cup reduced risk by 20 per cent. 
So, it would seem caffeine may play a minor role but other bioactive compounds are at work.
Polyphenols Cafestol and Kahweol have many benefits
Coffee beans contain tow polyphenol Diterpines Cafestol and Kahweol, but of which are oils. Cafestol is found in both Robusta and Arabica beans. Kahweol is found in Arabica only. 
First, let us explore a potential concern. In Dutch research from 1997 (2) with humans over a 28 day period, both raised levels of cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides, although cafestol showed the stronger response. Figures where both were involved rose 0.23, 0.23 and 0.09 mmol/L  respectively.
But the benefits are significant. In a Chinese 2019 review (3), in vitro and in vivo studies show that the two polyphenols have anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer properties as well as protecting bone osteoclasts (so coffee might help protect bones from the effects of drugs such as Letrozole and Denosumab).  These two diterpenes have been shown to reduce inflammatory factors, reduce blood supply formation to cancer cells and cause cancer cell death (apoptosis).
And this review concluded that coffee does seem to protect the liver. The 1997 study also showed that the two polyphenols raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. ALT is checked by your doctor to measure liver damage, but here the increases were found to be independent of liver cells. In other words, coffee drinking could give you a false flag of liver problems.
Prostate cancer
In 2017 there was Italian Research which showed real Italian Coffee could cut prostate cancer risk in half. (See link below). 
Chris Woollams, former Oxford University Biochemist and Founder of CANCERactive said, “Coffee is a complex mix of bioactive natural compounds like flavonoids, phenols and the diterpenes – the latter having strong cancer correcting epigenetic properties. Core ingredients of real coffee are known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, insulin-regulating and anti-cancer benefits. In the above studies, however, some of the benefit seemed linked to caffeine. But, a study in May 2011 by the Harvard School of Public Health (4) showed that drinking real coffee reduced the risk of an aggressive, lethal form of prostate cancer – and this was true whether it was caffeinated or decaffeinated. So other factors are clearly at work. 

We also know that real coffee consumption lowers levels of certain liver enzymes and the risk of cirrhosis.

 Finally, 4-5 cups a day reduces Parkinson’s risk and type-2 diabetes risk. Contrary to popular belief, there may even be benefits against cardiovascular disease.”
1. Southampton University News May 2017 - Liver Study; http://www.southampton.ac.uk/news/2017/05/coffee-liver-study.page
2. Separate effects of coffee diterpenes; R Urgert et al, Am J Clin Nutr; 1997, Feb 65(2), 519-24 - https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9022539/#affiliation-1
3. Cafestol and Kahweol: A review on Their Bioactiveities and Pharmacological Properties. Int J Mol Sci; 2019, Sep; 20(17), Yaqi Ren et al - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6747192/
4.  Coffee Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study,” Kathryn M. Wilson, Julie L. Kasperzyk, Jennifer R. Stark, Stacey Kenfield, Rob M. van Dam,  Meir J. Stampfer, Edward Giovannucci, Lorelei A. Mucci, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, online May 17, 2011.

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